What are the push factor behind the fact that French youth from “second generation” muslims, muslims converts to take part in “Jihad” and join groups like ISIS? Olivier Roy tries in this article which was published in November 2015 in French and translated by the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, the answer to this question.
This publication produced by Arab Forum for Alternatives (AFA) in cooperation with the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung (RLS) examines the new wave of international terrorism led by ISIS. One of the main characteristics of this wave is the involvement of youth from different nationalities in attacks by ISIS; here come the urgency for scholars and researchers to start studying and identifying root causes of this phenomenon.
In this context, this publication aims to identify root causes and tries to present progressive answers from youth and mid-career researchers on reasons that led youth to join these violent groups and organizations.
Arab revolutions have shown in the past years that the followed economic models that was backed by the European Union has failed to achieve the promised development goals, and resulted in a clear reduction in citizens’ access to economic and social rights. In spite of the endorsement of the European Union on that, it still adopts policies in the course of the Deauville partnership, which goes in line with international financial institutions, which are still promoting more liberalization of trade and finance, privatization and attracting foreign direct investment, as well as austerity in spending to meet the State budget deficit .
After the victory of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi in Egypt’s latest Presidential elections, the military establishment holds again the office of the State President and thus renewed its direct political rule of the country.
The 2014 Tunisian Budget includes harmful measures for interests of wage earners and small and medium sized Tunisian producers, and to the youth and the dwellers of popular neighborhoods and interior regions. This article explores the related reasons and political choices.
Many “knew it”, of course. The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, or “the Islamists” in general, didn’t have a political plan and their downfall was only a matter of time. The Tamarod (“Rebel”) campaign called for protests against President Muhammad Morsi on 30 June. Millions answered and demonstrated for days. As the campaign built up people in Egypt were asking: “What will happen on 30 June?”